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Cooling and freezing processes in key polar regions produce dense cold ocean water. These cold bottom waters flowing from the poles, coupled with warm equatorial surface waters flowing toward the poles, regulate the overall climate of our planet. At the same time, marine ecosystems in polar regions, often dependent on atmospheric transport of trace nutrients from temperate latitudes, play key roles as downward

Find out more about IPY projects studying the Ocean by browsing summaries on this site, or visit the full proposal database.

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