What is IPY
Displaying items by tag: Italy
Saturday, 30 December 2006 04:34
There is now clear evidence that the effects of recent and past climate changes have varied in magnitude across of the world. Some changes over periods of thousands of years seem to have affected the Arctic and Antarctic regions alternately, and this has been called the “bipolar see-saw” effect. The BIPOMAC project will collect and examine climate records in sedimentary sequences spanning the past five million years from both polar regions. These records will provide a basis for analysing the complex interactions of environmental processes that have caused the observed patterns of climate variation. Improved understanding of such processes and their interactions will increase our ability to forecast future climate and sea level change.
Saturday, 30 December 2006 04:11
OASIS will study the chemistry in the air over the Arctic Ocean. The health of mammals and humans is at stake, and a future change in climate will undoubtedly introduce unknown changes. OASIS will make use of a variety of platforms (icebreakers, ice islands, buoys) to obtain year-round information on the behavior of such key chemicals as ozone, mercury, and carbon dioxide. As the nature and extent of snow and ice cover is changing OASIS will assess the associated impact on, and by, climate change, and the human and ecosystem impacts of these chemicals.
Saturday, 30 December 2006 03:31
Trace metals iron, zinc, copper, manganese, nickel and cobalt are essential for every living cell and organism of our planet. Recently we discovered that algae in the Southern Ocean, the basis of the entire Antarctic food-chain up to penguins and whales, suffer from a lack of dissolved iron for their growth and CO2 fixation. The role of the other metals in Arctic and Antarctic oceanic waters is virtually unknown. We will quantify distributions, role and fate of several trace metals. Combination with key natural isotopes allows the unraveling of sources and turnover rates of these Trace Elements and Isotopes in waters and ice of the polar oceans.
Saturday, 30 December 2006 02:43
POLar study using Aircraft, Remote sensing, surface measurements and modelling of Climate, chemistry, Aerosols and Transport (POLARCAT) "Aerosols have a large effect on radiation transmission in the Arctic troposphere, both directly and indirectly via clouds. POLARCAT will study transport to the Arctic of aerosols, as well as of air pollution more generally, from anthropogenic sources and boreal forest fires. It will address the effects of this pollution on atmospheric chemistry and climate. POLARCAT will use a large number of aircraft, a ship, a train, surface stations, as well as satellite data and numerical models. The first campaign, from 26 March - 19 April will use two aircraft based in Longyearbyen, Spitsbergen. Other campaigns in February 2008 and summer 2008 will follow with aircraft being based at various locations throughout the Arctic and in the boreal region."
Saturday, 30 December 2006 02:38
Because of their cold, dry and stable air, the polar regions are the finest locations on the planet for making frontline astronomical observations. AstroPoles is a 15-nation project to assess the astronomical conditions at four polar sites – Dome A and Dome C in Antarctica, and summit Station and Ellesmere Island in the Arctic. By measuring sky brightness, optical seeing, water vapour content and the meteorological conditions at these sites, AstroPoles will provide baseline data to assess what astronomical facilities could be built in the polar regions, and the kind of science they could tackle.
Saturday, 30 December 2006 01:22
Dense water formation in Polar areas; Impact on global ocean circulation and climate This international team of oceanographers will embark on expeditions to the Polar Oceans with ice going vessels to measure ocean temperature, salinity and currents, ice formation and distribution. They will employ remote sensing as well as bottom anchored instrument moorings to feed global numerical models. The project will try to estimate the impact of dense water formation in the polar regions on the global ocean circulation and climate.
Friday, 29 December 2006 05:55
Comparative Studies of Marine Arctic and Antarctic Ecosystems and the Potential Consequences of Climate Change The polar ecosystems are of key importance for the earth's climate and biosphere. ICES will coordinate a symposium to present major results and conclusions of the IPY entitled “Comparative Studies of Marine Arctic and Antarctic Ecosystems and the Potential Consequences of Climate Change”. The congress will be held in 2010 in an ICES member state or affiliate country.
Friday, 29 December 2006 05:31
"Antarctic Sea Ice in IPY is the coordinated project for the sea ice zone surrounding Antarctica, covering over 20 million sqkm (the size of South America) at maximum extent. Our purpose is to determine, for the first time, the circumpolar year-round sea ice thicknesses in this zone. This effort requires extensive ship investigations, coordinated satellite monitoring and use of underwater technologies such as up looking sonar from moorings and use of unmanned autonomous underwater vehicles. The reflectivity or albedo of the earth's surface represents one of the main determinants of surface temperature and, Antarctic sea ice as one of the most large-scale changeable sources of reflected solar energy therefore represents a major contributor to climate and climate change."
Friday, 29 December 2006 05:20
Three terrestrial components of the cryosphere: snow cover, permafrost, and small glaciers will be studied as well as their interactions with society and potential feedbacks to the Global Earth System. Within each area of research the foci of studies will be on the models’ development and creation of conditions for seamless their implementation to improve understanding and projections of environmental change and to serve numerous practical applications.
Friday, 29 December 2006 01:47
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